Retailer effects

Industry opposition: predicted retailer effects

Industry predictions about retailer effects

Deloitte., Potential impact on retailers from the introduction of plain tobacco packaging,  2011, Alliance of Australian Retailers: Sydney. Available from
Deloitte., Plain packaging and channel shift,  2011, Alliance of Australian Retailers: Sydney. Available from

Independent research on likely effects on retailers

Carter, O. B., Mills, B. W., Phan, T. and Bremner, J. R., Measuring the effect of cigarette plain packaging on transaction times and selection errors in a simulation experiment, Tobacco Control 2011. Available from

Guthrie J, Hoek J, Darroch E, and Wood Z. A qualitative analysis of New Zealand retailers' responses to standardised packaging legislation and tobacco industry opposition. BMJ Open, 2015; 5(11):e009521. Available from:  

Retailers’ subjective assessments of effects of legislation

Australian Association of Convenience Stores, Impact of plain packaging on small retailers - wave 2,  2013. Available from

For Cancer Council Victoria critique of this report see here

Observed effects on retailers after legislation

Carter, O., Welch, M., Mills, B., Phan, T. and Chang, P., Plain packaging for cigarettes improves retail transaction times, BMJ 2013. p. f1063. Available from

Wakefield, M., Bayly, M. and Scollo, M., Product retrieval time in small tobacco retail outlets before and after the Australian plain packaging policy: real-world study, Tobacco Control 2013. Available from

Bayly M, Scollo M, and Wakefield M. No lasting effects of plain packaging on cigarette pack retrieval time in small Australian retail outlets. Tobacco Control, 2014. Available from:

Scollo M, Zacher M, Durkin S, and Wakefield M. Early evidence about the predicted unintended consequences of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia: a cross-sectional study of the place of purchase, regular brands and use of illicit tobacco. BMJ Open, 2014; 4(8). Available from:

Scollo M, Coomber K, Zacher M, and Wakefield M. Did smokers shift from small mixed businesses to discount outlets following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia? A national cross-sectional survey. Tobacco Control, 2015; 24:ii98-ii100. Available from: