Packaging Research

Evidence on importance of packaging

Pack design as marketing 

Freeman, B., Chapman, S. and Rimmer, M., The case for the plain packaging of tobacco products, Addiction 2008. p. 58090. Available from

Ford, A., The packaging of tobacco products,  2012, Centre for Tobacco Control Research, University of Stirling: Stirling. Available from

See also

Borland R and Savvas, S Effects of stick design features on perceptions of characteristics of cigarettes, in Tobacco Control 2012. Available from

Borland, R Savvas S, Sharkie, F and Moore,K The impact of structural packaging design on young adult smokers' perceptions of tobacco products, in Tobacco Control 2012. Available from

[Video] The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project): Plain Packaging of Cigarettes. 2015. Available from

Ford A, Moodie C, Purves R, MacKintosh AM. Adolescent girls and young adult women's perceptions of superslims cigarette packaging: a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2016 Jan 8;6(1):e010102. Available from:  

Lempert, LK and Glantz, SA. Implications of tobacco industry research on packaging colors for designing health warning labels. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2016. Available from:   

Lee, J. G. L., Richardson, A., Golden, S. D., and Ribisl, K. M. Promotions on Newport and Marlboro cigarette packages: A national study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2016. Available from:

Research studies that guided design of Australian packaging and health warnings

Department of Health and Ageing. Market Research Reports on tobacco plain packaging and graphic health warnings, Australian Government

Evidence reviews

Quit Victoria review of evidence to early 2011 –

C. Moodie, M. Stead, L. Baulda, A. McNeill, K. Angusa, K. Hinds, I. Kwan, J. Thomas, G. Hastings and A. O’Mara-Eves, Plain tobacco packaging: a systematic review,  2011, University of Stirling: Stirling, Scotland. Available from

M. Stead, C. Moodie, K. Angus, L. Bauld, A. McNeill, J. Thomas, G. Hastings, K. Hinds, A. O'Mara-Eves, I. Kwan, R. I. Purves and S. L. Bryce, Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies, PLoS ONE 2013, Public Library of Science. p. e75919. Available from

Chantler, Sir Cyrl. Independent Review into standardised packaging of tobacco, April 2014 Available from Independent Review into standardised packaging of tobacco

Hammond D. Standardized packaging of tobacco products: evidence review. Irish Department of Health, 2014. Available from:

Industry-funded critiques of reviews

Padilla, J. and Watson, N., A critical review of the literature on generic packaging for cigarettes,  2010, LECG Consulting Belgium: Brussels. Available from

Other critiques of evidence reviews

McKeganey N and Russell C. Tobacco plain packaging: evidence based policy or public health advocacy. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2015; 26(6), 560–68. Available from:

Studies published on the potential effects of plain packaging since the UK systematic review  

Mucan B, and Moodie C. Young adult smokers’ perceptions of plain packs, numbered packs and pack inserts in Turkey: a focus group study. Tobacco Control, 2018; 27:631-636. Available from:

Andrews J, Netemeyer R, Burton S, and Kees J. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France. Tobacco Control, 2016. Available from:  

Nonnemaker J, Kim A, Shafer P, Loomis B, Hill E, et al. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and plain black and white cigarette packaging and advertisements on adults: Evidence from a virtual store experimental study. Addictive Behaviors, 2016; 56:15-22. Available from:

Mutti S, Hammond D, Reid JL, White CM, and Thrasher JF. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth. Health Promotion International, 2016. Available from: 

Babineau K and Clancy L. Young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging: a comparison of EU Tobacco Products Directive & Ireland's Standardisation of Tobacco Act. BMJ Open, 2015; 5(6). Available from:  

Agaku IT, Filippidis FT, and Vardavas CI. Effectiveness of Text versus Pictorial Health Warning Labels and Predictors of Support for Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products within the European Union. Eur Addict Res, 2015; 21(1):47-52. Available from:

Smith CN, Kraemer JD, Johnson AC, and Mays D. Plain packaging of cigarettes: Do we have sufficient evidence? Journal of Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 2015; 8:21-30. Available from:

Gendall P, Eckert C, Hoek J, Farley T, Louviere J, et al. Estimating the 'consumer surplus' for branded versus standardised tobacco packaging. Tobacco Control, 2015. Available from:

Auemaneekul N, Silpasuwan P, Sirichotiratana N, Satitvipawee P, Sompopcharoen M, et al. The impact of cigarette plain packaging on health warning salience and perceptions: Implications for public health policy. Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015. Available from: 

Maynard OM, Leonards U, Attwood AS, Bauld L, Hogarth L, et al. Effects of first exposure to plain cigarette packaging on smoking behaviour and attitudes: a randomised controlled study. BMC Public Health, 2015; 15:240. Available from: 

Brose LS, Chong CB, Aspinall E, Michie S, and McEwen A. Effects of standardised cigarette packaging on craving, motivation to stop and perceptions of cigarettes and packs. Psychology & Health, 2014; 29(7):849-60. Available from: 

Shankleman M, Sykes C, Mandeville KL, Di Costa S, and Yarrow K. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: Experimental evidence. Public Health, 2014. Available from:

Hogarth L, Maynard OM, and Munafo MR. Plain cigarette packs do not exert Pavlovian to instrumental transfer of control over tobacco-seeking. Addiction, 2014. Available from:

Gallopel-Morvan K, Moodie C, Eker F, Beguinot E, and Martinet Y. Perceptions of plain packaging among young adult roll-your-own smokers in France: A naturalistic approach. Tobacco Control, 2014. Available from:  

Villanti AC, Cantrell J, Pearson JL, Vallone DM, and Rath JM. Perceptions and perceived impact of graphic cigarette health warning labels on smoking behavior among U.S. Young adults. Nicotine Tob Res, 2014; 16(4):469-77. Available from:

Maynard OM, Attwood A, O'Brien L, Brooks S, Hedge C, et al. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend, 2014; 136:170-4. Available from: 

Guillaumier A, Bonevski B, Paul C. Tobacco health warning messages on plain cigarette packs and in television campaigns: a qualitative study with Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Health Educ Res. 2014. Epub 2014/06/27.   

Moodie CS and Mackintosh AM. Young adult women smokers' response to using plain cigarette packaging: a naturalistic approach. BMJ Open, 2013; 3(3). Available from:

Lund I and Scheffels J. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey. BMC Public Health, 2013; 13:1005. Available from: 

Brewer, C Plain cigarette packets could reduce nicotine addiction, in BMJ 2013. p. f3105. Available from

Mannocci A, Colamesta V, Mipatrini D, Boccia A, Terzano C, et al. [How would plain packaging and pictorial warning impact on smoking reduction, cessation and initiation?]. Epidemiol Prev, 2013; 37(6):400-5. Available from:

Hammond D, White C, Anderson W, Arnott D, and Dockrell M. The perceptions of UK youth of branded and standardized, ‘plain’ cigarette packaging. The European Journal of Public Health, 2013. Available from: 

Scheffels J and Lund I. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey. BMJ Open, 2013; 3(12):e003732. Available from:

Arora M, Tewari A, Grills N, Nazar GP, Sonrexa J, et al. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: A mixed method research. Front Public Health, 2013; 1:35. Available from: 

Brown A, McNeill A, Mons U, and Guignard R. Do smokers in Europe think all cigarettes are equally harmful? European Journal of Public Health, 2012; 22 Suppl 1(suppl 1):3540. Available from:

Studies on the effects of plain packaging once implemented in Australia


Studies exploring restrictions on product appearance beyond packaging

Hoek J, Gendall P, Eckert C, Kemper J, and Louviere J. Effects of brand variants on smokers’ choice behaviours and risk perceptions. Tobacco Control, 2015. Available from:  

Hoek J, Gendall P, Eckert C, and Louviere J. Dissuasive cigarette sticks: The next step in standardised ('plain') packaging? Tobacco Control, 2015. Available from: