Effects of legislation

Effects of legislation post-implementation

Department of Health. Tobacco plain packaging post–implementation review. 2016. Available from:  https://ris.govspace.gov.au/2016/02/26/tobacco-plain-packaging/ 

Effects on children

White V, Williams T, and Wakefield M. Has the introduction of plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings changed adolescents’ perceptions of cigarette packs and brands? Tobacco Control, 2015; 24:ii42-ii49. Available from:  http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/24/Suppl_2/ii42.full

White V, Williams T, Faulkner A, and Wakefield M. Do larger graphic health warnings on standardised cigarette packs increase adolescents' cognitive processing of consumer health information and beliefs about smoking-related harms? Tobacco Control, 2015; 24:ii50-ii57. Available from:  http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/24/Suppl_2/ii50.full

El-Khoury Lesueur F, Bolze C, Gomajee R, et al. Plain tobacco packaging, increased graphic health warnings and adolescents’ perceptions and initiation of smoking: DePICT, a French nationwide study. Tobacco Control, 2018. Available from:  https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/early/2018/11/08/tobaccocontrol-2018-054573

White VM, Guerin N, Williams T, et al. Long-term impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with larger graphic health warnings: findings from cross-sectional surveys of Australian adolescents between 2011 and 2017. Tobacco Control, 2019. Available from:  https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/early/2019/08/20/tobaccocontrol-2019-054988

Results of National Plain Packaging Tracking Survey – effects on adults

Wakefield M, Coomber K, Zacher M, Durkin S, Brennan E, et al. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey. Tobacco Control, 2015; 24:ii17-ii25. Available from:  http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/24/Suppl_2/ii17.full

Durkin S, Brennan E, Coomber K, Zacher M, Scollo M, et al. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers. Tobacco Control, 2015; 24:ii26-ii32. Available from:  http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/24/Suppl_2/ii26.full

Brennan E, Durkin S, Coomber K, Zacher M, Scollo M, et al. Are quitting-related cognitions and behaviours predicted by proximal responses to plain packaging with larger health warnings? Findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers. Tobacco Control, 2015; 24:ii33-ii41. Available from:  http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/24/Suppl_2/ii33.full  

Other early research on effects on attitudes and intentions

Wakefield, M. A., Hayes, L., Durkin, S. and Borland, R., Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study, BMJ Open 2013. Available from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23878174  

Dunlop SM, Dobbins T, Young JM, Perez D, and Currow DC. Impact of Australia's introduction of tobacco plain packs on adult smokers’ pack-related perceptions and responses: results from a continuous tracking survey. BMJ Open, 2014; 4(12). Available from:  http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/12/e005836.abstract

Guillaumier A, Bonevski B, Paul C, Durkin S, and D'Este C. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: An experimental study. BMJ Open, 2014; 4(2):e004078. Available from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503299 

Yong H-H, Borland R, Hammond D, Thrasher JF, Cummings KM, et al. Smokers’ reactions to the new larger health warning labels on plain cigarette packs in Australia: findings from the ITC Australia project. Tobacco Control, 2015. Available from:  http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/early/2015/02/19/tobaccocontrol-2014-051979.abstract   

Hardcastle SJ, Chan DC, Caudwell KM, Sultan S, Cranwell J, et al. Larger and More Prominent Graphic Health Warnings on Plain-Packaged Tobacco Products and Avoidant Responses in Current Smokers: a Qualitative Study. Int J Behav Med, 2015. Available from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920708 

Nagelhout GE, Osman A, Yong HH, Huang LL, Borland R, et al. Was the media campaign that supported Australia's new pictorial cigarette warning labels and plain packaging policy associated with more attention to and talking about warning labels? Addictive Behaviors, 2015; 49:64-7. Available from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26050643

Maddox R, Durkin S, and Lovett R. Plain packaging implementation: Perceptions of risk and prestige of cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2015. Available from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713418

Balmford J, Borland R, and Yong HH. Impact of the introduction of standardised packaging on smokers' brand awareness and identification in Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev, 2015. Available from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26369651

Dunlop, S, Perez, D, Dessaix, A, and Currow, D.  Australia's plain tobacco packs: anticipated and actual responses among adolescents and young adults 2010–2013.  Tobacco Control, 2016. Available from:  http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/early/2016/11/15/tobaccocontrol-2016-053166.abstract?papetoc

Effects on pack display/social acceptability

Nee-Nee J, Sutherland K, Holland R, et al. Tobacco pack display at hospitality venues after the introduction of standardised tobacco packaging in New Zealand: a field observation study. BMJ Open 2019;9:e027868. Available from:  https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/9/e027868

Zacher M, Bayly M, Brennan E, Dono J, Miller C, et al. Personal pack display and active smoking at outdoor café strips: assessing the impact of plain packaging 1 year postimplementation. Tobacco Control, 2015; 24:ii94-ii97. Available from: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/24/Suppl_2/ii94.full 

Zacher, M., Bayly, M., Brennan, E., Dono, J., Miller, C., Durkin, S., Scollo, M. and Wakefield, M., Personal tobacco pack display before and after the introduction of plain packaging with larger pictorial health warnings in Australia: an observational study of outdoor cafe strips, Addiction 2014. p. 653-62. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24428427

See also

Wakefield, M. A., Zacher, M., Bayly, M., Brennan, E., Dono, J., Miller, C., Durkin, S. J. and Scollo, M. M., The silent salesman: an observational study of personal tobacco pack display at outdoor café strips in Australia, Tobacco Control 2014. p. 339-344. Available from http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/23/4/339.abstract

Effects on calls to Quitline

Young, J. M., Stacey, I., Dobbins, T. A., Dunlop, S., Dessaix, A. L. and Currow, D. C., Association between tobacco plain packaging and Quitline calls: a population-based, interrupted time-series analysis, Med J Aust 2014. p. 29-32. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24438415

Support for legislation

Swift E, Borland R, Cummings KM, Fong GT, McNeill A, et al. Australian smokers' support for plain or standardised packs before and after implementation: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey. Tob Control, 2014. Available from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25385449  

Effects on tobacco consumption

Underwood D, Sun S, and Welters RAMHM. The effectiveness of plain packaging in discouraging tobacco consumption in Australia. Nature Human Behaviour, 2020. Available from:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-00940-6

                Critique of the Underwood study

See also, industry claims about lack of effects in Australia