The bladder is a muscular sac that stores urine. It is located in the pelvis and is part of the urinary system.
As well as the bladder, the urinary system includes two kidneys, two tubes called ureters leading into the bladder, and another tube called the urethra leading out of the bladder. In women, the urethra is a short tube that opens in front of the birth canal (vagina). In men, the tube is longer and passes through the prostate and down the penis.
The kidneys produce urine, which travels to the bladder through the ureters. The bladder is like a balloon and inflates as it fills. When it is time to go to the toilet, the bladder muscle contracts and urine is passed through the urethra and out of the body.
There are four main layers of tissue in the bladder:
Bladder cancer begins when cells in the inner lining of the bladder become abnormal, which causes them to grow and divide out of control. The treatment for bladder cancer depends on how far the cancer has spread into the layers of the bladder:
The cancer cells are found only in the inner lining of the bladder (urothelium) or in the next layer of tissue (lamina propria) and haven’t grown into the deeper layers of the bladder wall. Most bladder cancers are non-muscle-invasive tumours. See treatment information.
The cancer has spread beyond the urothelium and lamina propria into the layer of muscle, or right through the bladder wall. See treatment information.
There are three main types of bladder cancer. They are named after the cell type in which the cancer first develops.
About 80–90% of all bladder cancers start from the urothelial cells that line the bladder wall. This is sometimes called transitional cell carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma can be papillary or flat (see below), and it can also occur in the ureters and kidneys (see surgery).
The most common type of bladder cancer, urothelial carcinoma, is divided into two subgroups.
his type of cancer starts in the thin, flat cells in the lining of the bladder. It accounts for 1–2% of all bladder cancers1 and is more likely to be invasive.
This cancer develops from the mucus- producing cells of the bladder. It makes up about 1% of all cases2 and is likely to be invasive.
Rarer types of bladder cancer include sarcomas (starting in the muscle) and aggressive forms called small cell carcinoma, plasmacytoid carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma.
Each year, more than 2400 Australians are diagnosed with bladder cancer. Most people diagnosed with bladder cancer are 60 or older.
Men are three to four times more likely than women to be diagnosed with bladder cancer. Women have about a 1 in 430 chance of being diagnosed with bladder cancer before the age of 75. For men, the chance is about 1 in 110, making it one of the top 10 most common cancers in men.2
Sometimes bladder cancer doesn’t have many symptoms and is found when a urine test is done for another reason. However, often people with bladder cancer do experience symptoms. These can include:
This is the most common symptom of bladder cancer. It often occurs suddenly, but is usually not painful. There may only be a small amount of blood in the urine and it may look red or brown. For some people, the blood may come and go, or it may appear only once or twice.
A burning feeling when passing urine, needing to pass urine more often or urgently, not being able to urinate when you feel the urge, and pain while urinating can also be symptoms.
Less commonly, people have pain in one side of their lower abdomen or back.
If you have any of these symptoms or are concerned, see your doctor as soon as possible.
Not everyone with these symptoms has bladder cancer. These changes might also indicate a bladder irritation or an infection. Blood in your urine can also be caused by kidney or bladder stones, and non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate in men.
Never ignore blood in your urine. Even if you’ve noticed blood in the urine only once, and it is painless, see your doctor.
Research shows that people with certain risk factors are more likely to develop bladder cancer. These include:
Your GP will usually arrange the first tests. If these tests don’t rule out cancer, you’ll be referred to a urologist or to a local hospital that specialises in urology. The urologist will examine you and may do more tests. A range of health professionals will work as a multidisciplinary team (MDT) to treat you.
The following health professionals may be in your MDT. Note that only some patients see a cancer care coordinator. If the bladder cancer is non-muscle-invasive, you are unlikely to need systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy, so you probably won’t have to see a medical oncologist or radiation oncologist.
|MDT health professionals|
|GP||works in partnership with your specialists in providing ongoing care
||specialises in diseases of the male and emale urinary systems and the male eproductive system; performs surgery
||prescribes and coordinates the course of radiotherapy
||prescribes and coordinates the course of chemotherapy
|cancer care coordinator or clinical nurse consultant (CNC)
||coordinates your care, liaises with other members of the MDT and supports your family throughout treatment
||administer drugs, including chemotherapy, and provide care, information and support throughout your treatment
|stomal therapy nurse
||provides advice and support to patients with a stoma
||assesses and educates patients about bladder and bowel control
||recommends an eating plan for you to follow while you are in treatment and recovery
||links you to support services and helps you with emotional or practical issues
|clinical psychiatrist*, psychologist, counsellor
||provide emotional support and help manage any feelings of depression and anxiety
|physiotherapist, occupational therapist
||assist with physical and practical problems, including restoring a range of movement after surgery
Reviewed by: A/Prof Manish Patel, Urological Cancer Surgeon, Westmead Private and Macquarie University Hospitals and University of Sydney, NSW; Gregory Bock, Urology Cancer Nurse Coordinator, WA Cancer and Palliative Care Network, Department of Health, WA; Leslie Leckie, Consumer; A/Prof Declan Murphy, Urologist, Chair of Uro-Oncology and Director of Robotic Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, VIC; Jan Priaulx, 13 11 20 Consultant, Cancer Council NSW.
1. JN Eble, G Sauter, JI Epstein, IA Sesterhenn (Eds.), World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs, IARC Press, Lyon, 2004.
2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books: Bladder cancer, AIHW, Canberra, 2016.