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Centre for Behavioural
Research in Cancer

Norms and the built environment: use of shade in United States and Australian city parks

Built shade can be a good public investment because it requires less pre-planning than other personal sun protection practices, such as clothing and sunscreen. In collaboration with Dr David Buller from Klein Buendel in Denver USA, we conducted a randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that individuals were more likely to use recreation areas in public parks in which built shade was introduced than unshaded control areas. We also tested if built shade would be more used in Melbourne, Australia with its 25-year-long skin cancer prevention campaign than in Denver, USA. The findings of the study will inform future investments in shade and provide data on factors associated with ultraviolet radiation under shade.

CBRC staff

Dr Suzanne Dobbinson, Prof Melanie Wakefield, Jody Simmons


Dr David Buller and Dr Mary Buller (Klein Buendel, Denver USA), Prof Dallas English (The University of Melbourne) and Dr James Chamberlain (Cancer Epidemiology and Intelligence Division, Cancer Council Victoria)


US National Cancer Institute, Cancer Council Victoria


1992 - present